1. Implementation research toolkit. Geneva: Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR); 2014 (
  2. In the IR context, an 'intervention' is typically defined as any health technology (medicine, vaccine or diagnostic test), or treatment and/or prevention practice and strategy, or efforts executed at the individual, community or institutional levels.
  3. End TB strategy. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 (
  4. Massive open online course (MOOC) on implementation research: infectious diseases of poverty. Geneva: Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR); 2018 (
  5. Harries AD et al. The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières approach to operational research. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15(2):144–54 (
  6. Nilesen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implement Sci. 2015;10:53 (
  7. Handbook for the use of digital technologies to support tuberculosis medication adherence. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (
  8. Classification of digital health interventions (v1.0). A shared language to describe the uses of digital technology for health. Geneva: World Health Organization and the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction; 2018 (
  9. Digital health for the End TB strategy: an agenda for action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (
  10. Information based on: Lewis, Liu, Zhang, Thomas, Vassal, Sweeny, Caihong et al. Evaluation of a medication monitor-based treatment strategy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis patients in China: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2018; 19: 398 (